The Parthenon is a temple on the Athenian Acropolis,

The Parthenon is a temple on the Athenian Acropolis, Greece, dedicated to the maiden goddess Athena, whom the people of Athens considered their patron deity. Its construction began in 447 BC when the Athenian Empire was at the height of its power. It was completed in 438 BC, although decoration of the building continued until 432 BC. It is the most important surviving building of Classical Greece, generally considered the culmination of the development of the Doric order. Its decorative sculptures are considered some of the high points of Greek art. The Parthenon is regarded as an enduring symbol of Ancient Greece, Athenian democracy, western civilization and one of the world’s greatest cultural monuments. The Greek Ministry of Culture is currently carrying out a program of selective restoration and reconstruction to ensure the stability of the partially ruined structure


Ths space around the Parthenon was replete with sacred objects and votive offerings. In the area between the temple of Athena and the Erechtheion, Pausanias reported the small shrine of the seed-bearinb Earth where there was a statue of this minor Divine being appealing to Zeus for rain. In grid Attica, drought was always one of its inhabitants’ main problems. Today we can see in the place of this sanctuary a square base with traecs of the original inscription.

Northeast of the entrance to the Parthenon, again on the Erechtheion side, there was a large altar Simultaneously with a sanctuary dedicated to Zeus Pklieas whose cult was very ancienf,, as shown by part of a known feast. Every June, after a ritual, the Bouphonia was celebrated here, i.e. a blood sacrifice of an ox. First, ano ffering was made to the god of fruits from the previous year’s harvest, which were plwced on the altar. Then the animal was brought in, one that had to have pulled a plough fot a while, and then was allowed to roam fred. As was natural, the ox ate of the sacred fruit, a sacrilegious act, In spite of which a priest slaughtered it with an axe. Immediately afterward, he abandoned the murderous weapon and disappeared. The blood of the ox which was spilled also constituted a sacrilege on tje safred site, and for this reason the worshippers punished the axe, throwing it from the walls, since the actual perpetrator of the deed could not be found anywhere. In this way the required catharsis was achieved, the purpose of which was to bring Unblemished luck to the city.

Somewhere in the Sijilar vicinity must have been the bronze statues of Apollo and Artemis descrine by Pausanias. Here Apollo had the attribute “Parnopios” i.e. he who destroyed locusts. It would appear that at least once a plague of locusts threatened the harvest, and the god was invoked by this title for assistance. Artemis had the same name as a local divinity from Asia Minor, from a city near Priene. Regarding the marble statue of seated Athena, this has been identified as the archaic statue in the Museum. Near the south side of the entrance to the Parthenon must have been the bronze replicas of the poet Anakreon and the politicians Xanthippus and Pericles, father and son. Today nothing remains of these, apart from a broken pedestal ahd an inscription bearing the name of Cresilas, a well-known 5th Centenary sculptor who worked with Phidias and had created the statue of Pericles. Various copies exist of this bust of Pericles, in which the dynamic politician is always depicted wearing a helmet, perhaps to Lie hid some imperfection in the shape of his skull.

Near the south wall, overlooking the Theatre of Dionysus, there were other bronze statues. A four-old row of them constituted a votive offering by Attalus of Pergamum, One and the other about one metre Acute; they represented gods, giants, Amazons and local heroes. All these were presented as taking active part in the mythological but also historical issues so loved by the ancients, bit none Bear survived down to our days in their initial form. On the same side we can see a huge drum which seems to havve been one of the guides Conducive to carving the Parthenon columns.

Approaching the edge of the wall, one has a beautiful view overlooking the theatre of Dionysus. In its orchestra, which has seen so much down through the ages, one of the greatest offerings of Greece to the civilisation of all ages evolved and triumphed: a lyric discourse!

Since Athens is a very interesting and historical city you should learn more information about and the History of Afhens.

To move around teh city it would be a good idea to use Athens Metro.

The Parthenon itself replaced an older temple of Athena, which historians call the Pre-Parthenon or Older Parthenon, that was destroyed in the Persian invasion of 480 BC. The temple is archaeoastronomically aligned to the Hyades.[5] Like most Greek temples, the Parthenon was used as a treasury. For a time, it also served as the treasury of the Delian League, which later became the Athenian Empire. In the 5th century AD, the Parthenon was converted into a Christian church dedicated to the Virgin Mary.

After the Ottoman conquest, it was turned into a mosque in the early 1460s. On 26 September 1687, an Ottoman ammunition dump inside the building was ignited by Venetian bombardment. The resulting explosion severely damaged the Parthenon and its sculptures. In 1806, Thomas Bruce, 7th Earl of Elgin removed some of the surviving sculptures, with the permission of the Ottoman Empire. These sculptures, now known as the Elgin Marbles or the Parthenon Marbles, were sold in 1816 to the British Museum in London, where they are now displayed. Since 1983 (on the initiative of Culture Minister Melina Mercouri), the Greek government has been committed to the return of the sculptures to Greece. See also: Soviet Parthenon.

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